Dielectric measurement is an electrically analogous method

Dielectric measurement is an electrically analogous method
Dielectric measurement is a way that is electrically analogous to the measurement of mechanical dynamics. In this case the mechanical stress is replaced by the alternating voltage passing through the sample (AC field) and the alternating strain becomes the charge store (Q) in the sample. Temperature dependence on dielectric behavior of polymer capacitor, the sample affected by the voltage acts as a simple capacitor. Q is always measured as a derivative of dQ / dt = AC current. This analysis is generally carried out to examine the curing behavior of thermosetting resin systems, composite materials, adhesives, polymers and paints.

Dielectric data is obtained from measurements of the phase and amplitude of the current and voltage to solve the component ε * = capacitance with sample / capacitance with an identical air gap. The drawing of the DETA instrument is shown in Figure 1.
Materials like polymers can exhibit capacitive behavior (the ability to store electrical charges) and also conductive behavior (the ability to pass an electric charge). Under the given conditions, the material being tested can be represented by resistors (conductors) and capacitors in parallel. This is as shown in Figure 2.
If a sinosidal voltage is applied to a resistor (conductor), the resulting current measured is in phase with the applied voltage. There is no storage in any charge by the resistor.

When a voltage in the same period is applied to a capacitor, some charge storage occurs and as a result the measured current appears out of phase due to the applied voltage. The phase shift is denoted as delta, δ, valued at 0 ° for the actual conductor and 90 ° for the true capacitor. This is shown in Figure 3. The polymer material shows both capacitive and conductive properties. The result is a phase shift between 0 ° and 90 °.
In this preparation process it is very important to ensure that there is perfect contact between the sample and the electrode, so that the sample should ideally have a smooth surface without any uneven waves / surfaces. Generally, thinner samples are better than thick samples. The ideal thickness of the sample is 2 mm or less.

If a sample is not smooth / even, a spark coating is needed for the sample with a conductive coating. The ideal coating material is gold, but the cost tends to be expensive. Silver or aluminum can also be used as a coating material but the surface can oxidize quickly so the analysis must be done as soon as possible after the sample is prepared.
This coating removes the air gap between the sample and the effective electrode (ie the metal is coated with a sputter) so that it will eliminate unnecessary data. An alternative that can be done is a coating of a dielectric material that can be applied dielectrically to remove air bags. The material is generally in the form of petroleum jelly.

DETA electrodes are generally spring loaded to maintain positive contact with the sample through a thermal profile. The electrodes can be locked into place if needed to avoid pressurized fluid spilling out. An example of the results of the analysis obtained as shown in Figure 7 below.
The DETA instrument can be used for several main applications to conduct a study of the character of a material or a certain process that occurs in that material. One of them is to study the process of thermal polymerization of benzoxazine monomers to form polibenzoxazine polymers as carried out by Gârea et al. (2007).

Polibezoxazine is a type of thermosetting phenolic resin that has several superior properties including high glass transition temperature (Tg), high thermal stability, good mechanical properties, low water adsorption, good resistance to combustion and also low price. This material is often turned into a protective coating material on television circuits, computer chips, aircraft bodies, curing agents for other synthetic resins and varnishes that form thin films with good resistance to water, alkaline and solvents.

Polymerization of benzoxazine monomers through termination of heterocyclic rings at high temperatures without the presence of a catalyst and without producing byproducts. Until now, there have been many types of phenolic compounds and primary amines that have been used for the synthesis of benzoxazine resins.

There are two main phenomena that influence e ", namely ionic conductivity and dipole relaxation. At the beginning of the polymerization reaction, conductivity is the dominant factor, but towards the end of the reaction e becomes more dependent on the relaxation of the dipole. The current study is that if ionic conductivity does not depend on frequency, dipole relaxation depends on frequency. To reveal the contribution of these two factors to the missing factor e ", the dependence of σ on time at different frequencies needs to be observed. These observations have also been shown in Figure 11 above.

When the reaction starts, the conductivity shows the highest value because the viscosity is very low, and the ion has sufficient mobility. Furthermore, during the reaction, the viscosity increases so that the ion mobility decreases. This causes the conductivity to also decrease and reach a constant value, where it shows the gel point.

The benzoxazine monomer shows a different gel point. The Ba-BZA monomer shows the lowest gel point (40 minutes) due to the high oligomer concentration of the initial monomer (this was previously confirmed by GPC, DSC and 1H NMR). These oligomers act as catalysts for the polymerization reaction through phenolic groups. The BA-CHA monomer reaches the gel point after 40 minutes, the initial oligomer concentration is smaller than BA-BZA. For BF-BZA and BF-CHA monomers, the gel point is reached at 70 minutes for BF-BZA and 80 minutes for BF-CHA. The initial oligomer concentration of the two monomers is almost the same, so the catalytic effect is not taken into account. The difference in recativity between BF-CHA and BF-BZA can also be explained by looking at the electronegativity of oxygen atoms in the oxazine ring. In the BF-CHA monomer, the oxazine ring also contains a nitrogen atom which has a cyclohexyl group as its substituent which induces greater electron density in the benzyl group.

Potential and Constraints for Integrated Farming System Development

Potential and Constraints for Integrated Farming System Development
The integrated farming system provides a great opportunity to improve and strengthen food security and farmers' incomes, because the integrated farming system is designed to be interconnected between mutualistic businesses. The linkages between these types of businesses provide benefits, both economically, technically and environmentally. Major constraints of livestock development, the research objectives are (i) Identifying the potential and constraints of developing integrated farming systems from technical, economic and social aspects, (ii) Formulating policy strategies to support the development of integrated farming systems going forward. The results of the study show that the potential for developing integrated farming systems is quite large, with the availability of various types of agricultural businesses that can integrate with each other such as livestock and fish at the farm level. However, the current condition of the concept of business integration has not been implemented well. Technically, the potential of the land is sufficient to support the development of various businesses including cattle. The status of cattle ownership is dominant in the form of production sharing system, this is a challenge to the sustainability of cattle business going forward. Supporting external factors is quite good, such as the SPSS program (one cow, one farmer) which leads to the development of livestock, in turn supporting the application of integrated farming systems by farmers. The infrastructure is relatively good so that access to the outside is smooth.
Various limiting factors at the farm level: (i) technological mastery is still weak, as a result the income of businesses is relatively low; (ii) Land acquisition is relatively narrow, rice fields are 0.3-0.4 ha / KK and dry land is 0.25-0.30 ha / KK; (iii) Limited capital for business development, especially for the supply of cattle or poultry. It is recommended to policy makers including (i) Increase the capacity of science and technology farmers and extension workers on technology both cultivation technology and waste treatment in order to accelerate the development of integrated farming systems. (ii) Optimizing the utilization of agricultural resources owned by farmers (land and labor) and structuring commodity combinations towards optimal integrated farming patterns using the LEISA approach or zero waste; (iii) Directing funding priorities in the Nagari region such as LKM-A, cooperatives, Nagari Micro-Credit (KMN) and other MFIs for livestock development, and encouraging the use of KUR, KUPS by farmers / ranchers.

The integrated farming system provides a great opportunity to improve and strengthen food security and farmers' incomes. Furthermore, if an integrated farming system is designed for a mutualistic relationship between types of farming, it will be more profitable, both economically, technically and environmentally. Integrated farming systems can reduce the risk of crop failure, because dependence on one commodity can be avoided, and saves production costs (Hamdani, 2008). To implement the integrated farming system, technology is needed that includes the provision of superior variety technology of relatively profitable economic value commodities such as food crops, horticulture, types of livestock and fish and waste treatment technology. To get added value for the farming family, the processing of the products cultivated by the farm household can be done. Integrated farming systems in addition to being able to expand sources of income, integrated farming systems are also a strategy to minimize the risk of business failure. As one of the strategies in agricultural development, integrated farming systems need to be supported by supporting factors such as good infrastructure, smooth communication, availability of capital, guaranteed markets and government policies (Hamdani, 2008 and Kusnadi, 2007).

One example in the implementation of an integrated farming system is the integration system of plants and livestock, where this system creates conditions that ecologically affect each other, crop waste becomes animal feed, otherwise livestock can produce manure, compost and energy for crop cultivation. Some of the advantages in implementing crop and livestock farming systems are: (1) diversification in the use of production resources, (2) reducing the occurrence of risks, (3) efficient use of labor, (4) efficient use of production components, (5) reducing dependency on chemical energy and biological energy and other resource inputs from outside, (6) the ecological system is more sustainable and does not cause pollution thereby protecting the environment, (7) increasing output and income; and (8) developing farmer households to be more stable (Diwyanto, et al. 2001; Kariyasa, 2005).

Five-year development planning at the provincial level in West Sumatra has been prepared in the Regional Medium-Term Development Plan (RPJMD) for 2010-2015. The RPJMD contains 10 priorities for medium-term regional development, one of which is the development of area-based agriculture and leading commodities, and the acceleration of poverty reduction. The Governor of West Sumatra has launched the Integrated Farmers Welfare Movement (GPP) and the assistance of one cow for one farming family (SPSS) (Bappeda, 2009). The program is a strong supporting factor towards developing an integrated farming system in West Sumatra.

This study aims to: (i) Identify the potential and constraints of developing an integrated legal system from technical, economic and social aspects; (Ii) Formulating policy strategies to support the development of integrated farming systems going forward.
The location of the study was Agam District by selecting sample locations of Yaotu Subdistrict IV Lift and Baso Subdistrict. The implementation was carried out from April to November 2011. The assessment method was carried out in stages: (a) Desk Study; (b) Farmer survey and PRA / FGD (Irawan, 2006; Driyamedia, 1996; Research and Development Agency, 1999).
Desk study aims to compile secondary data on biophysical potential, planting area, livestock population, institutional, and social aspects. Besides that it also collects relevant research results and technologies that have been produced to support the development of integrated farming systems. The main parameters of the example farmers are input-output data on farming, control of agricultural resources, business scale, diversity of farming systems, yields, income, technology status and the constraints faced. Data collection is done through interviews with farmers and using a questionnaire. Samples were taken by simple random sampling totaling 60 people. Data analysis was performed descriptively, tabulation (%, ratio, average), farming analysis (Sukartawi, 2002) and SWOT analysis (IAARD, 2000).

The average land acquisition and agricultural, livestock and fish business are relatively narrow. The average area of arable paddy rice is 0.32 ha / KK with variations of 0.30-0.40 ha / KK. Dry land tenure is also relatively narrow compared to rice fields. Therefore, the development of an integrated farming system is a must to be developed. There is a potential business component to support an integrated farming system in which most farmers are already working on 1-3 cattle per family. Even a small number of farmers already have fish ponds (Table 1).

Most irrigated rice fields are still limited to the type of village and simple irrigation. Therefore, to optimize the use of paddy fields can be done by regulating cropping patterns between rice and secondary crops / vegetables after rice, in accordance with the pattern of irrigation water availability and local rainfall patterns. The regulation of crop crop cultivation in paddy fields is a strategy to increase cropping index (IP) in order to increase farmers' income. It is hoped that farmers will not only depend on lowland rice, but sufficient technology is available to cultivate paddy fields other than rice outside the rice planting season such as planting corn or sweet potato and peanuts after paddy rice. The improvement of the paddy field cropping system at the same time supports the development of integrated farming systems.

Criteria for a Good Housing Environment for Shelter

Criteria for a Good Housing Environment for Shelter
Having a safe and comfortable residence is a must for anyone. The choice of a good residential environment is also a supporting factor in the smooth running of your daily activities. Then, what are the criteria for a good housing environment to be chosen as a place to live? Here are five criteria that you need to consider before deciding to buy or rent a dream home in the future.

Maximum environmental safety
Assessment of problems of access to residential housing, the first criterion that must exist in a good residential environment is safety. From a survey conducted, it was noted that 75% of respondents consider safety in addition to the price, location and access factors in choosing the best housing. This safety factor can be exemplified by the existence of a one gate system which is widely applied by many developers to date.
In addition, the best developers will also adopt the concept of smart home security in a residential environment. For example, there are CCTV, fire alarms, alarm systems, to panic alarms for emergencies. Plus security officers who are ready will make you more calm and comfortable.

Have an integrated waste management system
Second, the housing environment must also have an integrated management system. This management can be done by sorting household waste. Examples are garbage or household waste that can be composted, plastic waste, and recyclable waste. Not only that, the water in the housing is also mandatory for you to pay attention.
Waste water in the household must have very serious management. It is feared that poor circulation of dirty waterways (gutters) can pollute the clean water content in the housing environment. This will disturb your comfort such as health and hygiene problems.

Access to public transportation is affordable
The criteria for a residential environment that you should consider before choosing housing is access to affordable public transportation. For example, transportation such as KRL, public transportation, access to toll roads, and other mass transportation. Now, there are also many developers who develop residential environments with the concept of Transit Oriented Development (TOD).
Of course this will facilitate you in doing daily activities. Just imagine if the housing location does not have access to affordable public transportation, you will have difficulty doing daily activities. You even have to detour to find the path that has the best access and this will take time.

Close to public facilities
Aside from transportation access, the fourth criterion that needs to be considered is close to public services. Public services here can be exemplified by adequate health services such as hospitals, clinics, and pharmacies. Likewise with access to education, from schools to universities for your child's education.
Likewise, the business center or office that reaches all your activities. Next is public service in terms of meeting daily needs. For example, access to modern markets, supermarkets and malls. Likewise with places of worship, you should be close to the location of housing in order to facilitate you.

Has a green open space
Not only has the TOD concept, a residential environment that is much glimpsed now is also has sufficient green open space. The function of the existence of green open space is not only as a water catchment area so that it does not flood, but also as a place for air circulation so that the inhabitants feel comfortable and healthy. Green open space you can also use as a children's play area or exercise. Here you can also have fun recreation with family and other housing residents.
Those are some important criteria that you need to consider to choose a good residential environment. One of the best housing locations you can choose. With the concept of integrated housing, you can get all these criteria here. A good place to live will certainly improve the quality of your life, right?

The big challenge in achieving 100% safe access to drinking water and proper sanitation is related to the large funding needs. Funding needs for 2015-2019 to achieve universal access to drinking water is around Rp. 253.8 trillion, and to achieve 100% access to proper sanitation is Rp. 273.7 trillion. To meet the funding needs of that size, various sources of funding are needed, namely the state budget, regional budget, DAK, business entities through the scheme of Government Cooperation with Business Entity (KPBU), banking, CSR, and the community.

Rina continued, DAK is one of the funding sources sourced from the APBN which is allocated to certain regions with the aim of helping to fund special activities which are regional affairs and in accordance with national priorities. With this DAK mechanism, it is expected to accelerate the implementation of development, improve the regional economy, and support the welfare of the community. DAK is expected to contribute to efforts to accelerate the achievement of the target of 100% safe access to drinking water and proper sanitation.

"The implementation of DAK must support the national priority agenda, namely the fulfillment of Minimum Service Standards (SPM) through regular DAK, supporting strategic activities which are national priority programs, including to support the handling of slums through DAK assignments. As well as the fulfillment of the duties and responsibilities of the state in fulfilling SPM in affirmation areas, including the handling of stunting areas through DAK affirmations. While the implementation of drinking water and sanitation DAK should be carried out through integration in the framework of providing adequate housing for the community. The implementation of DAK must also be part of the integration of various funding sources, so that the benefits of infrastructure generated for certain loci can be felt significantly, "said Rina.

Coriander (Coriandrum sativum) Coriander Cultivation

Coriander (Coriandrum sativum) Coriander Cultivation
Coriander Cultivation | Agro-Coriander (Coriandrum sativum) is a medicinal plant in the form of terna / herba, 20-100 cm high, stems when bruises smell nice. The pinnate sharing leaves, do not have hair, are covered with white edges. Integrated nutrient management for coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) production, compound interest in the form of an umbrella, flower stalks 2-10 cm, leaves of small pads. The flower crown is pink or pale red, 3-4 mm long, some flowers have bloomed deciduous. Fruit length 4-5 mm. Ecology. Grows in Java, Sumatra, and in mountainous areas with an altitude of 700-2. 000 m asl. Usually planted in the fields and in the yard of the house.

Plants can grow on a variety of soil types, but the most suitable is easy soil, clay soil that contains lime or alkaline-shaped and well drained. Soils that contain a lot of water or are not acidic are good for coriander plants. Soil which has too much nitrogen content causes vegetative development, thus reducing yields. Rainfall of 1. 000 - 2. 000 mm / yr. Throughout the development of flowers and fruit until harvest, there will be little rain. Planting on dry fields is done in the middle to the end of the rainy season. On irrigated soils, when planting is good in the dry season. In the tropics coriander is planted in mountainous regions. In the lowlands finally unsatisfactory.

Cultivation Step.
Propagation of plants is done by seeds. seeds taken from healthy, ripe seeds. Ground processing is done by hoeing twice as deep as 25-30 cm, weeds are made clean, the soil is softened and leveled. Around the land to be planted, drainage canals are made. Seeds are spread in furrows as deep as 2.5 cm with a spacing of 10-15 days. Distance between grooves 35-100 cm. Seeds will grow after 10-15 days. After it is large enough, plants are planted and weeded several times. Plants start flowering, at the time of fruit formation, and harvest, wanting sunny weather so that the fruit does not rot quickly. In the dry season the soil situation is kept moist by watering the plants.

Harvest Steps.
Plants are harvested when they are yellow brown, at the age of 3-3, 5 months. from the time of planting. Harvesting is done by cutting or pulling the plants and then the plants are tied and dried for 1 week or more. Seeds are released from the fruit and dried again to dry.

Benefits and Benefits:
Decrease sugar content in Diabetes patients. In coriander there is a substance called cumin, where the stimulation of the cumin substance will increase insulin secretion from the pancreas. this system will turn sugar into glycogen that will be used by the body, this kind of thing will have a positive impact on reducing blood sugar content to return to normal;
Deal with a variety of skin problems. Coriander can cure various skin problems that arise such as eczema, dry skin and skin infections caused by fungus;

Protect cycles and menstrual abnormalities. Coriander can stimulate the secretion of the hormone estrogen from the endocrine glands to protect the discipline (cycle) of menstruation and other abnormalities that may arise during menstruation such as: pain that is too excessive and others;

Protect eye health. The content of vitamins A, C, minerals and phosphorus contained in coriander essential oils can help improve eye health, avoid macular degeneration, eye fatigue, and coriander has anti-infectious conditions in conjunctivitis; deal with diarrhea.
The basic components of borneol and linalool present in coriander essential oil help with digestive health and help the intestinal binding system to reduce and stop diarrhea; Anti-inflammatory (anti-inflammatory). The contents of cineole and linoleic acid have anti-inflammatory, anti-rheumatic benefits and reduce swelling arising in the joints due to rheumatoid arthritis; Lower cholesterol content. Various acid compounds in coriander such as linoleic acid, palmitic acid, ascorbic acid, oleic acid, stearic acid are believed to have the function and the main role in reducing blood cholesterol content.

Market Focus: World Economic Growth and Trade Balance

Market Focus: World Economic Growth and Trade Balance
The balance of payments is closely related to interstate trade. Because the balance of payments is an overview that summarizes transactions between residents of a country and residents of other countries for a certain period of time (Balance of Payments and Economic Growth).
This includes buying and selling goods and services, grants from foreign individuals and governments, and financial transactions. Transactions in the balance of payments can be divided into two types, namely:
Debit transactions, namely transactions that cause the flow of money (foreign exchange) from domestic to foreign countries. This transaction is called a negative transaction, which is a transaction that causes a reduction in the position of foreign exchange reserves.
Credit transactions, namely transactions that cause the flow of money (foreign exchange) from abroad into the country. This transaction is also called a positive transaction, which is a transaction that causes an increase in the country's foreign exchange reserves.

Purpose of Preparing Balance of Payments
So, what is the balance of payment prepared for? There are several objectives for its preparation. One of them we can know the economic structure and trade of a country. By observing the development of the balance of payments, we can know the general patterns of economic activity in a country in interacting with other countries.

Such as dependence on national income sources from exports of agricultural products and dependence on investment financing sources from other countries. In addition there are still several other objectives, namely:

1. Knowing the role of the external sector in a country's economy
The role of the external sector is reflected in part from the large amount of demand for domestic products by non-residents, or vice versa. The greater the demand for non-resident domestic products, which is reflected in the value of the country's exports, the greater the role of the external sector in the formation of domestic products.

2. Knowing the flow of resources between countries
We will know how big the flow of resources between one country and other countries. So it can be seen whether the country is an exporter of goods and / or capital or vice versa as an importer of goods or capital.

3. Knowing a country's foreign debt problems
Based on records of capital and financial transactions in the balance of payments, we will know how far a country can fulfill its obligations to other countries.

4. Knowing changes in the position of a country's foreign exchange reserves
Increase or decrease in the position of foreign exchange reserves related to the balance of payments surplus or deficit. If there is a balance of payments surplus, the foreign exchange reserve position will increase by the surplus, and vice versa.

5. Sources of data and information in preparing foreign exchange budgets (foreign exchange budget)
By considering the surplus or deficit in a certain year, it can be seen the size of foreign exchange needs for the next year's budget, as well as the amount of loan needed.

6. Sources of data compilation of national income statistics (national accounts)
Balance of payment statistics are needed in the calculation of national income. Because one of the variables of national income is the value of exports / imports of goods and services recorded at

The International Monetary Fund (IMF) continues to cut its forecast for world economic growth this year. Noted, the IMF has cut it five times. Previously, the IMF cut its forecast for world economic growth from 3.2% to 3%. For 2020 it will also be cut from 3.5% to 3.4%. This was stated in the Global Market Outlook, recently.
"This growth is the weakest since 2009 when the global economy weakened," said Pilarmas Investindo Sekuritas in its review, Wednesday (10/16). With the global economic slowdown linked to uncertain recovery situations and conditions, the outlook for global growth remains risky. The IMF also said that there was no room for making mistakes in making policies to cooperatively increase trade and ease geopolitical tensions.
In addition, the decline in growth driven by a decline in global manufacturing and trade activity, as well as higher tariff increases accompanied by uncertainty over prolonged trade policies will damage investment and demand for capital goods. In 2020, although it is predicted to slow down, economic growth is likely to be supported by expectations of better performance from Brazil, Mexico, Russia, Saudi Arabia and Turkey. Meanwhile, China wants in-depth discussion before signing a first phase agreement with the United States (US) related to trade.
Until now, where the discussion is still unclear where. However, China is expected to send Chinese Deputy Prime Minister Liu He to complete the first phase of the trade agreement. In addition, China also wants the US to cancel the tariff increase scheduled for December. However, US Treasury Secretary Steven Mnuchin said that he hoped officials could work in the coming weeks to prepare for the first phase so that it could be signed as soon as possible. On one hand, the President of the Central Bank of the Fed
Louis James Bullard said global trade and other risks remained high for the US economy which might slow down deeper than expected. In the end, the Fed may choose to provide additional accommodation in the future, but decisions will be made based on the next meeting. Domestically, the Central Statistics Agency (BPS) said that the World trade balance as of September 2019 had a deficit of US $ 160 million. RI's export value is still lower than imports.
BPS further stated, during August-September 2019, commodity prices were observed to fluctuate. There are several non-oil and gas commodities that have experienced price increases, which then affect the value of export-import. Goods such as consumption have increased both monthly and yearly. The increase in consumption imports is caused by the increase in demand for vehicles such as frozen meat, sports cars, and chemicals. As for raw materials, there was a decline in imports due to falling demand. One commodity that has come down is raw sugar from Thailand. From the capital goods sector, there was an increase compared to last month and a decrease when compared to last year. According to Pilarmas, trade war sentiments also influence World export performance. From developments in August-September 2019, where the global economic situation is still filled with uncertainty, the ongoing trade war is sometimes cool, sometimes uncertain, and commodity prices fluctuate.

Efforts to improve the quality of national education

Efforts to improve the quality of national education
In an effort to improve the quality of national education, the government in particular through the Ministry of National Education continues to strive to make various changes and renewal of our education system. Teachers competency of public sector schools, One of the efforts that has been and is being done, which is related to teacher factors. Birth of Law No. 14 of 2005 concerning Teachers and Lecturers and Government Regulation No. 19 of 2005 concerning National Education Standards, is basically a government policy which includes government efforts to organize and improve the quality of teachers in Indonesia. Michael G. Fullan cited by Suyanto and Djihad Hisham (2000) suggested that "educational change depends on what teachers do and think ...". This opinion implies that the change and renewal of the education system is very dependent on "what teachers do and think". or in other words, it depends on the mastery of teacher competencies.
If we observe further about the reality of teacher competence today it seems that it still varies. Sudarwan Danim (2002) revealed that one of the characteristics of the education crisis in Indonesia is that teachers have not been able to show adequate work performance. This shows that teacher performance has not yet been fully supported by adequate degrees of competency mastery, therefore a comprehensive effort is needed to improve teacher competency.
This paper will explain what teacher competencies are and how efforts to improve teacher competency are seen from the role of the principal. Hopefully this article can be used as material for reflection for teachers and other parties with an interest in education.

The Nature of Teacher Competence
What is meant by competency? Louise Moqvist (2003) argues that "competency has been defined in the light of actual circumstances relating to the individual and work. Meanwhile, from the Trainning Agency as conveyed by Len Holmes (1992) states that: "A competence is a description of something which a person who works in a given occupational area should be able to do. It is a description of an action, behavior or outcome which a person should be able to demonstrate. "
From the two opinions above, we can draw a common thread that competence is basically a picture of what someone can do (be able to do) in a job, in the form of activities, behaviors and results that should be displayed or demonstrated.
In order to be able to do something in his work, of course someone must have the ability (ability) in the form of knowledge (knowledge), attitude (attitude) and skills (skills) in accordance with the field of work.
Referring to the definition of competency above, in this case teacher competency can be interpreted as a description of what a teacher should be able to do in carrying out his work, whether in the form of activities, behavior or results that can be demonstrated ..
Furthermore, Raka Joni as quoted by Suyanto and Djihad Hisham (2000) suggests three types of teacher competencies, namely:

Professional competence; have extensive knowledge of the field of study they teach, choose and use a variety of teaching methods in the teaching and learning process that it organizes.
Social Competence; able to communicate, both with students, fellow teachers, and the wider community.
Personal competence; that is, having a strong and exemplary personality. Thus, a teacher will be able to become a leader who performs the role of:
Meanwhile, in the perspective of national education policy, the government has formulated four types of teacher competencies as stated in the Explanation of Government Regulation No. 19 of 2005 concerning National Education Standards, namely:

Pedagogical competence that is an ability in the management of students which includes: (a) understanding insight or educational foundation; (b) understanding of students; (c) curriculum / syllabus development; (d) learning design; (e) the implementation of educative and dialogical learning; (f) evaluation of learning outcomes; and (g) the development of students to actualize the various potentials they have.

Personality competence is a personality ability that is: (a) steady; (b) stable; (c) mature; (d) wise and wise; (e) authoritative; (f) having good character; (g) be a role model for students and the community; (h) evaluating one's own performance; and (i) develop themselves in a sustainable manner.
Social competence is the ability of educators as part of the community to: (a) communicate verbally and in writing; (b) using communication and information technology functionally; (c) associating effectively with students, fellow educators, education personnel, parents / guardians of students; and (d) socializing politely with the surrounding community.
Professional competence is the ability to master extensive and in-depth learning material which includes: (a) concepts, structures, and scientific / technological / artistic methods which shade / coherently with teaching material; (b) teaching materials that are in the school curriculum; (c) conceptual relationships between related subjects; (d) the application of scientific concepts in daily life; and (e) professional competition in a global context while preserving national values and culture.
As a comparison, the National Board for Professional Teaching Skills (2002) has formulated competency standards for teachers in America, which are the basis for teachers to obtain teacher certification, with the formulation of What Teachers Should Know and Be Able to Do, which consists of five main propositions , that is:

Teachers are Committed to Students and Their Learning which includes: (a) teacher appreciation of individual student differences, (b) teacher understanding of student learning development, (c) equitable treatment of all students, and (d) teacher's mission to expand thinking horizons of students.
Teachers Know the Subjects They Teach and How to Teach Those Subjects to Students include: (a) teacher appreciation of understanding subject matter to be created, organized and connected with other subjects, (b) the ability of teachers to deliver subject matter (c) developing efforts to obtain knowledge in various ways (multiple paths).
Teachers are Responsible for Managing and Monitoring Student Learning includes: (a) the use of various methods in achieving learning objectives, (b) arranging the learning process in a variety of group settings, the ability to reward (reward) for student success, (c ) assess student progress regularly, and (d) awareness of the main objectives of learning.
Teachers Think Systematically About Their Practice and Learn from Experience include: (a) Teachers continuously test themselves to choose the best decisions, (b) teachers ask for advice from others and conduct various research on education to improve learning practices.
Teachers are Members of Learning Communities include: (a) teachers contribute to school effectiveness through collaboration with other professionals, (b) teachers work with parents, (c) teachers can take advantage of various community resources.

Critical Thinking Needs for Students

Critical Thinking Needs for Students
APPROACHING the academic year or lecture 2019/2020, every tertiary institution in the World has a moral obligation to constantly remind students and prospective students about the importance of affirming their identity and existence in a good, intelligent and critical way. Attitude of undergraduate university student towards the understanding of critical thinking, World history has proven that nations develop very well when their students have a good, intelligent and critical self-authenticity. Learning from history, various efforts to emphasize the existence of these students must continue to emerge. In the contemporary context of the World, efforts to affirm their identity and existence in a good, intelligent and critical manner are very urgent considering that lately various sad events that have hit the campus world have lately eroded the authenticity of students themselves. The degradation of student identity and existence is quite factual, which is not impossible to have a systemic impact on negative perceptions, and then continues to lower the level of public trust in higher education institutions.
Portrait of degradation of the identity and existence of students appears in the phenomenon of various acts of violence and crime that occurred on the world campus world in the period until May 2016. There are several events that describe the blurred portrait of student life, such as fights that led to the death of West Manggarai students in Malang , the snare of Bandar Lampung IAIN students as drug dealers, the killing of lecturers by students at Muhammadiyah University, North Sumatra, and fights between students at Makassar State University, and the frequent demonstrations of Cenderawasih University students to force lecturers not to teach, were expelled out of the lecture hall. It may be that some of these events are only a small series of many other events, which clearly show the existence of 'internal contradictions' (contradictio interminis) within campus institutions. The campus which ideally is a source and reference to the public intellectual civilization, in fact actually presents the opaque deviant behavior of the intellectual candidates.
In my opinion, this contradiction can make the campus status as a 'crisis of intellectual identity'. This term, on the one hand, might be considered too forced and excessive, because in reality, there are still many campuses that are 'healthy', credible and bona fide , as well as having many students who have the ability to think critically, behave politely and excel so as to make the family, campus and nation proud, but on the other hand, this predication can be a kind of warning for the campus community, the government, and all parties concerned to examine it seriously. This seriousness is related to efforts to affirm and strengthen campus identity as a parametric institution in the field of intellectual-academic and barometric institutions in a variety of changes in the nation and the world. community trust in Lemb for higher education, whether through curriculum facilities, content and learning processes, or empowerment activities that synergistically and simultaneously involve students.

Building a Critical Adaptation System
Today's society, which is so open to various technological and information developments, moves non-linearly, is permissive to various deviations, strong competition, expansion and attunement of moral and cultural boundaries, and conflicts of economic, political, ideological and religious interests, can be claimed as a cause as well as a trigger for the emergence of acts of violence and crime on campus. Actually, thinkers long ago had given a picture of the characteristics of community life at this time, which was so latent also influenced the mentality of campus life. Today's society, according to Emile Durkheim, will develop 'without value' or 'anomie', and will experience a wave of strong and sudden changes, discontinue, unlinear, and unpredictable in Alvin Toffler's analysis. John Naisbit observes it as a society undergoing a transition from a 'small village' to a 'global village', and is marked by a 'clash of civilization' according to Samuel Huntington's study. Next Gibson examined it as a society laden with paradigmatic warfare, hyper-competition, succession of technological revolutions, dislocations and social conflicts.

The campus and its life have certainly been exposed to this change. If students do not have the capacity and integrity of knowledge and strong morals, it is not impossible to fall into the extreme notions of exclusivism, fundamentalism, radicalism, secularism, pornism, sectarianism, opportunism, pragmatism, hedonism, instantism and consumerism. If these extreme understandings continue to be inherent in the daily behavior of students, then automatically fade their identity and campus as individuals and intellectual-academic institutions. The intellectual (prospective) entrapment of these extreme ideas can be interpreted as another manifestation of 'intellectual betrayal' according to the perspective of Julian Benda (1867-1956).
To deal with developments and anticipate their impact, it is necessary to have the ability and critical power within the campus and students themselves. In this case the campus as an intellectual-academic institution must have a 'critical adaptive system' which can be facilitated through curricular and extracurricular learning activities. The purpose of this system is to prepare campuses and students to manage various forms of change that have both positive and negative impacts, and can empower students personally to have cultural, moral and religious integrity. In addition, in this system, through curriculum tools, content and learning processes, students are equipped with information and communication technology literacy skills, problem solving skills, effective communication skills and collaborative skills, creative thinking skills and critical thinking skills. These skills are typical of the campus as a knowledge-based society.

To support this system, students also need to familiarize themselves with dialogue, communication, discussion and attending various scientific seminars. By engaging themselves in these academic intellectual-based activities, they can practice thinking in a structured, logical and systematic manner, broad-minded, inclusive, rational, critical, selective and constructive in looking at their personal and social realities. Student involvement in campus internal organizations, such as: Campus Student Organizations, Campus Activity Units, Department Student Associations, Student Cooperation Forums and other external organizations, can help students to socialize and interact . In addition, by participating in many activities in a positive and scientific environment, they have a focus on ethical, moral and religious behavior and are responsible for life.